|Name of the food||Main ingredients||Method of preparation||Remarks|
|Aggala (Fig. 5a)||Roasted rice coarsely ground into flour, coconut or Kithul treacle, roasted and cracked mung bean, grated coconut, cashew, sesame, ground black pepper.||
- Mixture of rice flour and ingredients is thickened with heat.|
- Form small balls of the paste and dusted with roasted flour.
- Ground cinnamon, black pepper and cashew pieces enhance taste.|
- Sesame seeds can be used for the coating.
- Variations come from the flour source: left-over cooked rice dried, roasted and ground, roasted jack fruit seeds, or roasted maize seeds.
|Kewum/oil cakes (Fig. 5b)||Unroasted rice flour, coconut or Kithul treacle, salt, cumin (optional).||
- Mixture of rice flour-liquid sweetener is portioned into boiling oil.|
- Deep fry till a brown skin is formed.
- Mixture of flour and sweetener without any preheating makes a soft-spongy cake in the middle.
- Cooking of flour and liquid sweetener makes a denser middle structure and creates a product variation.
- Variations are as konda kevum (Fig 5b), hendi kevum and athirasa.|
- Non-heat-treated rice flour mixed with liquid sweetener creates a soft, spongy texture with air holes in the middle of hendi- and konda kevum. The skilled cook can raise the middle of the cake like a hair knot during cooking and makes konda kevum.
- Portions of heated mixture of flour and sweetener is made into flat circles and deep fried until brown skin is formed makes athirasa.
|Mung kewum (Fig. 5c)||Unroasted rice flour, flour of roasted mung bean, coconut or Kithul treacle, turmeric.||
- Rice and mung bean flour mixed with liquid sweetener to a thick but pliable paste.|
- Flattened paste is cut into shapes or made into balls, batter coated (made of rice flour and turmeric) and deep fried.
- Horse gram flour can replace mung bean.|
- Variations: Nāran kewum (Fig. 5d)
- Coarse pieces of roasted mung bean, cashew, with sweetened scraped coconut mixture made into balls, batter coated and deep fried.
- Pittu cooked in liquid sweetener until hold together to form balls and batter coated and deep fried.
|Undu walalu (Fig. 5f)||Black gram (skin removed) flour, unroasted rice flour, coconut milk, sugar syrup or Kithul treacle, salt.||
- Mixture of black gram and rice flour poured as a single strand through a small opening into boiling oil making a circular/coil shape structure.|
- When cooked soak in a sugar syrup.
- Polysaccharides of black gram creates thick viscous consistency of the mixture.|
- Wheat flour can replace some amount of rice flour but creates a denser texture.
|Ásmi (Fig. 5g)||Unroasted rice flour with fine particles, water and coconut milk extract of Neolitsea involucrate (Dawul kurundu leaves), salt.||
- Mixture of rice flour and the slimy leaf extract is directly poured into a wok of boiling oil using a strainer (a coconut shell with tiny holes drilled in the bottom) to make a circular shape structure and fold-in-half during cooking.|
- A second deep frying of the product after 1–2 day of storage.
- Decorate the top of the product with condensed sugar syrup (can add food coloring) before consumption.
- Mucilage-rich leaf extract provides continuous flour mixture strands during pouring and keeps structure pliability to fold into a semi-circular shaped product while frying.|
- A second frying gives the pure white color, delicately soft but crunchy texture.
- Colored sugar syrup enhances taste and appearance.
|Kokis (Fig. 5h)||Unroasted rice flour coconut milk, salt, turmeric, eggs (optional).||
- A special heated mold is dipped into the slightly thick flour batter.|
- The mold with batter coating is deep fried until the batter turns golden brown.
- Use a skewer to release the crispy product from the mold.
- Brass mold (kokis achchuwa) comes in different shapes e.g., flowers, butterflies, stars, etc. and has a long handle.|
- Complex interactions of starch, protein and oil of the batter makes crispy yellow-brown product.
|Aluvā (Fig. 5i)||Roasted rice flour, coconut or Kithul treacle, salt.||
- Cook rice flour-sweetener syrup mixture till a thick paste is formed.|
- Flattened the paste, cut into pieces and dust with roasted flour to prevent sticking.
|- Cashew, sesame seeds, roasted shredded coconut, ground black pepper and ground dry ginger enhance, taste and flavor of the product.|
|Kalu dodol/glutinous rice cake (Fig. 5j)||Unroasted rice flour, coconut milk, coconut or Kithul treacle or jaggery, cashew, cardamom, salt.||
- Rice flour, coconut milk and sweeteners together are cooked and simmer till oil separate out.|
- Cooked flour mixture becomes a thick soft jelly that holds together.
- Oil is spooned out and the soft gel is either transferred to a tray or folded in a cleaned wide base part of the arica nut tree.
- Serve as cut pieces.
- Spices and cashews enhance taste.|
- Sago beads can be used.
- Through oil removal extends product shelf life.
- Complex changes occur with the protein, starch and lipids of the ingredients; Maillard reaction, lipid-protein interaction and polymerization, browning, etc.
|Welithalapa/Sowdodol (Fig. 5)||Unroasted rice flour, scraped coconut, cardamom, coconut or Kithul treacle, salt.||
- Granules of pittu is made first then cooked in sweetened sugar syrup with flavorings until granules hold together.|
- Cooked mixture is flattened and cut into pieces.
- Smaller and uniform pittu granules are preferred.|
- Variation: the mixture can be formed into small balls, batter coated and deep fried to make Nāran kevum.
|Helapa (Fig. 5l)||Unroasted rice flour, finger millet flour, scraped coconut, coconut or kithul treacle, leaves of Macaranga peltata.||
- Mixture of rice and finger millet flour with sweetened coconut (peni pol) is portioned and flattened between folded leaves of Macaranga peltata or banana.|
- Products are steamed until the flour mixture becomes a completely gelatinized mass.
- Moist heat gelatinizes starch and denatures protein and infuses unique leafy flavor notes to the product.|
- Supplementing the flour with ground dry flowers of Madhuca langlifolia, seeds of Shorea megistophylla or de-bittered seeds of Vateria copallifera depending on the availability improves health benefits of the product.