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Table 1 Practice and philosophy of organic agriculture in Japan

From: History, ethnicity, and policy analysis of organic farming in Japan: when “nature” was detached from organic

 Natural farming (shizen nōhō)Organic agriculture (yūki nōgyō)/teikeiConsumer cooperativesGovernment policy and standardization
 The First Period (1930s to 1980s)The Second Period (since the 1990s)
Practice・No pesticide nor fertilizer
・No tillage
・Self seed collection
・Crop rotation
・Production of various crop types
・All products to be consumed
・Price fixed through the discussion by producers and consumers
・A group will not be too large by forming new groups.
・Producer groups
・Decreased use of food additives
and chemicals
・Exclusion of socially problematized chemicals
・Decreased amount of pesticide
・Inspection of pesticide residues
・Regulation on chemical fertilizer, pesticide, and genetically modified material
Philosophy・Respect for nature
・Phenomenology with fire, land, and water
・Keeping land clean
・Link among nature, food, and health
・Symbiosis with nature
・Mutual help and understanding between farmers and consumers・Anxiety about food additives and remained pesticide
・Registered producers
・Production methods are open.
・Communication between producers and consumers
・Avoid the confusion of labels
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