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Table 1 Indonesian food culture mapping

From: Indonesian food culture mapping: a starter contribution to promote Indonesian culinary tourism

Characteristics Western part of Indonesia Central part of Indonesia Eastern part of Indonesia
Natural environment: geographical position, temperature, landscapes Sumatera Tropic, hot, humid, many volcanoes, fertile, green, lush, many paddy fields. Kalimantan ▪ Tropic, hot, humid.
▪ A lot of rainforests
▪ Swampy coastlines
▪ Many big and long rivers
East Nusa Tenggara Hot and drier
Java Sulawesi Maluku ▪ Contains of hundreds of small islands
▪ Hot and humid but fertile for spices to grow (known as Spices Islands).
Bali West Papua ▪ Hot and drier, but some parts of the regions have snowy mountains.
▪ A lot of rainforests and swampy coastline.
▪ Many rivers and lakes
West Nusa Tenggara (Lombok) Tropic, hot, humid, fertile and green although in some parts are drier.   
Socio-cultural: Major ethnic groups, religion Sumatera ▪ Acehnese, Bataknese, Padangnese, more Chinese groups in North Sumatera.
▪ The majority are Muslims, except Bataknese are mainly Christian.
Kalimantan ▪ Dayak, Banjar, and Chinese
▪ The majority are Muslims
East Nusa Tenggara ▪ Timorese
▪ The majority are Christian and Catholic
Java ▪ Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese.
▪ The majority are Muslims.
Sulawesi ▪ Minahasan, Bugis, Torajan
▪ The majority are Muslims except for Minahasan, the majority are Christian.
Maluku ▪ Ambonese
▪ The majority are Christian and Catholic
Bali ▪ Balinese
▪ The majority are Hindus.
West Papua ▪ Some indigenous ethnic groups are still practising a very traditional ways of live.
▪ The majority are Christian and Catholic
West Nusa Tenggara (Lombok) ▪ Sasak ethnic group.
▪ Half are Hindus and the rest are Muslims.
Food: Staple food, spices/herbs, main ingredients, flavours Sumatera ▪ The influence of Middle East and Indian culture are strong in the regions.
▪ The cuisines have a very strong flavour (spicy, sour, thick that comes from heavy usage of coconut milk in cooking the dishes).
▪ Rice is the staple food.
▪ Beef, chicken as meats used in the dishes, along with vegetables.
▪ For Chinese and some Christian Bataknese, pork is eaten.
Kalimantan ▪ Rice is the staple food.
▪ Freshwater fish is abundant.
East Nusa Tenggara ▪ Corn and cassava is the staple food
Java ▪ Rice is the staple food. Maduranese eat corn as their main food.
▪ Beef, chicken as meats used in the dishes along with vegetables.
▪ Foods are sweeter in Central Java and the opposites in East Java.
Sulawesi ▪ Rice is the staple food.
▪ North Sulawesi cuisine has a very strong and spicy flavour; also some dishes contain extremely unfamiliar ingredients.
▪ Freshwater fish and seafood are abundant.
▪ Known as the best seafood produce in Indonesia.
Maluku ▪ Corn and cassava is the staple food, some eat papeda as the main food.
▪ Seafood is the main ingredients of the foods.
▪ Land of spices and fresh herbs
Bali ▪ Rice is the staple food.
▪ Pork is common in Balinese cuisine.
▪ Many Balinese dishes are spicy.
West Papua ▪ Corn and cassava is the staple food, some eat papeda as the main food.
▪ Seafood is the main ingredients of the foods.
West Nusa Tenggara (Lombok) ▪ Rice is the staple food.
▪ The signature flavour of Lombok cuisine is spicy.
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